Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) Are Now Available in ETFs. Should You Buy?

Written by on October 20, 2020

The exchange-traded fund business has simply cracked open one other area of interest space beforehand solely accessible to skilled traders: collateralized mortgage obligations. However simply because you possibly can put money into one thing, must you?

Collateralized mortgage obligations, or CLOs, are securities backed by a pool of company loans. The marketplace for them has grown bigger and extra liquid over the previous few years, and now appears mature sufficient for wider adoption. Different Entry Funds—a start-up fund supervisor based in 2018—launched the $10 million

AAF First Priority CLO Bond ETF

(ticker: AAA) in September. The

Janus Henderson AAA CLO ETF

(JAAA)—with a lot bigger seed property of $120 million—started buying and selling Monday.

Many traders may affiliate CLOs with CDOs, or collateralized debt obligations, which earned quite a lot of notoriety as a consequence of their leading role in the last financial crisis. The 2 devices are related in that they each bundle debt and promote to traders in slices, however completely different of their underlying choices.

CDOs are swimming pools of mortgages issued to customers; whereas CLOs are composed of loans made by banks to companies—usually with increased debt masses or decrease credit score scores. The market is extra closely regulated, with a protracted historical past of credit-risk ranking and stress assessments from businesses like


and S&P World. Every mortgage could make up not more than 2.5% of a CLO portfolio to make sure diversification, and is evaluated primarily based on the issuer’s monetary well being.

The bundle is then offered to traders underneath completely different tranches with various dangers and returns. The AAA-rated tranches, for instance, are paid out first when the underlying mortgage funds are acquired, and subsequently generate much less yields than lower-rated tranches with increased probabilities of default losses.

“The default danger of CLOs is extraordinarily low, even significantly better than many company high-yield bonds,” says

Wells Fargo

CLO analyst David Preston. Of the greater than 12,500 CLO tranches rated by the S&P World, solely 40 have ever defaulted—and none of them had been AAA-rated, the place the 2 new ETFs primarily make investments.

Because the coronavirus pandemic ignited a recent wave of scrutiny on the monetary well being of corporations, hundreds of leveraged loans and a whole bunch of CLOs had been placed under review or downgraded in ratings. None of that has affected the AAA-rated tranches.

For the reason that final monetary disaster, extra options have been put in place to present extremely rated CLO tranches extra safety. When default price will increase, for instance, extra of the mortgage issuers’ money move will likely be reallocated to AAA-rated tranches to forestall them from incurring losses. “Money move pays down from the highest, and defaults eat away from the underside,” Preston says.

The layered construction of CLOs signifies that principals within the AAA-rated tranches will likely be protected till greater than 70% of the underlying loans have defaulted, assuming half of the worth might be recovered. Even within the midst of the 2009 monetary disaster, the default price was solely 10%.

In fact, low default danger doesn’t imply highly-rated CLOs don’t produce other dangers concerned. Identical to any fixed-income instrument, they are usually much less liquid than shares.

Historically, banks and insurers had been the most important holders of highly-rated CLO tranches. Since they are usually long-term traders that don’t commerce steadily, liquidity was very restricted. “There was no secondary marketplace for CLOs; they may solely be purchased at issuance and solely massive institutional traders had entry,” says Janus Henderson’s ETF head Nick Cherney, “They had been additionally traded at very massive sizes, sometimes $1 billion to $5 billion.”

Liquidity has improved considerably over the previous 5 years. When the Federal Reserve began to lift rates of interest in 2015 after years of near-zero charges, floating-rate property like leveraged loans and CLOs became more attractive among income-seeking investors. Mortgage issuance exploded and CLOs took in enormous chunks of these loans. The collateralized mortgage market measurement has ballooned from $400 billion in 2015 to greater than $700 billion as we speak.

As cash managers have change into patrons and sellers of CLOs, buying and selling quantity on the secondary market has elevated considerably. This has enabled the launch of retail-oriented merchandise like ETFs. The AAF and Janus Henderson CLO ETFs are each actively managed and solely put money into the highest-rated tranches. Each personal greater than 30 CLOs, and cost an expense ratio of 0.25%.

Though these ETFs now make CLOs accessible to all traders, they could be not very best for all.

Traders desirous about leveraged loans have lengthy had entry by way of funds just like the $4.three billion

Invesco Senior Loan ETF

(BKLN) and the $1.7 billion

SPDR Blackstone/GSO Senior Loan ETF

(SRLN). However critics of those merchandise usually warn of the declining lending standard and credit quality in financial institution loans over the previous decade, pushed by traders’ eagerness for increased yields in a low-rate setting.

This contains the expansion of so-called covenant-lite loans carrying fewer lender protections, permitting debtors to remain extremely leveraged with out being pressured into default. A February 2020 report from S&P World factors out that restoration charges of first-lien leveraged loans have been within the neighborhood of 75% to 80% traditionally, however as a consequence of elevated company leverage, it would lower to the mid-60s in the course of the subsequent financial downturn—which might be proper now.

Closed-end mutual funds that put money into lower-rated, riskier CLO tranches are reflecting the market’s concern. CLO fairness fund

Eagle Point Credit

(ECC) is down 41% 12 months up to now, and CLO subordinated-bond fund

Eagle Point Income

(EIC) has declined 30%—though each funds have rebounded from their March lows.

To make certain, AAA-rated CLOs and the brand new ETFs investing in them supply the a lot safer corners of the leveraged-loan market, with layers of default safety but increased yields than investment-grade bonds. As of Sept. 30, the common yield of AAA-rated CLOs was 1.6%, greater than double the 0.78% yield of AAA-rated company bonds.

Nonetheless, it stays an open query how properly the secondary marketplace for CLOs will fare if the underlying mortgage market deteriorates. For area of interest investments like this, if an financial downturn hits, they’ll nonetheless endure value volatility when the market sells off and liquidity dries up—even when they keep away from catastrophic principal loss

To attain wider adoption, the asset class wants time to show itself as a dependable various to different fixed-income devices in a low-rate setting. In spite of everything, the burn from 2009 nonetheless hurts as we speak.

Write to Evie Liu at

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